Studies of Second-Language Writing in Canada

Three Generations


  • Alister Cumming OISE/University of Toronto



L2 Writing; Canada; ESL; Composition


Canada’s social and educational policies have always involved immigrant settlement and English-French bilingualism. Research on writing in second languages emerged in the 1980s from graduate programs of education and applied linguistics at major universities in Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, and Vancouver, particularly scholars investigating cognitive and learning processes and rhetorical characteristics of writing in English as a mother tongue. In the 1990s several Canadian scholars established systematic programs of research focused on L2 composing processes, writing for academic purposes, assessment, and innovative educational programs—     spawning, in turn, in the 2000s a third generation of L2 writing researchers who have now established themselves across Canada and around the world. 




How to Cite

Cumming, A. (2023). Studies of Second-Language Writing in Canada : Three Generations. TESL Canada Journal, 40(1), 1–9.